In the same decade of 1960 some more piped water supply schemes for groups of villages
in the water scarcity prone rural areas were taken up. In 1970 the GOI launched
rural water supply program in a big way. To asses the need, a detailed village wise
survey was carried out in the year 1972 in the entire State. Norms were laid down
to identify water scarcity villages, which being: • Village in which water
source does not exist within 1.6 Km. or up to 15 m. depth in plains and 100 m. elevation
Village which has water source affected by quality problem such as excess salinity,
iron, fluoride, arsenic or other toxic elements.
Village which has water source that causes water borne diseases.
In the survey carried out in 1972, a total number of 35,506 villages were identified
as scarcity villages. In a re-survey carried out in 1985 another 42,544 villages
were identified as scarcity villages. Thus out of 1,12,566 revenue villages of the
State as per 1981 census, 78,050 villages were identified as problem villages which
included 66,408 villages of plains and 11,642 villages of Uttaranchal State. Priority
was given to cover the scarcity villages first. Development of special type of hand
pumps by UNICEF has been a break through in rural water supply. Installation of
India Mark-II hand pumps based upon the one developed by UNICEF was introduced in
Uttar Pradesh in the decade of 1980.